Tool 18 – Resettlement Planning

Resettlement planning is a highly complex field usually needing specialised consultants to help manage the process.

The construction and operation of mines often require acquisition of land and in some instances this can physically and economically displace local communities. Should this become likely, a resettlement action plan (RAP) will be required.  A RAP is not only about replacement or resettlement but also restoration.

RAPs should be undertaken as soon as it becomes clear involuntary resettlement will be required. Plans must be created through utilising the skills of experts and the references found in the Further Reading page.

Step Guide


Develop thematic maps which identify key features such as population settlements, infrastructure, soil composition, natural vegetation areas, water resources and land use patterns


Undertake a census that specifies the affected people and registers them according to location


Create an inventory of lost and affected assets at the household, enterprise and community level


Conduct socio-economic surveys and studies of all affected people. These should include focus groups and discussions with the various sectors of the communities being resettled


Analyse the results of the surveys and studies to establish compensation parameters. Initiatives to support the restoration of resettled communities will also be important


Engage with the affected community regarding mitigation of effects and development opportunities so as to restore and enhance their way of life

Components of a RAP

Components comprise of:

  • identification of project impacts and affected populations
  • a legal framework for land acquisition and compensation
  • a compensation framework
  • a description of resettlement assistance and restoration of livelihood activities
  • a detailed budget
  • an implementation schedule
  • a description of organisational responsibilities
  • a framework for public consultation, participation and development planning
  • a description of provisions for redress of grievances
  • a framework for monitoring, evaluation and reporting

Community, Economics, Environment, Ethical Business, Management, Rehabilitation

Managing the impacts of resettlement, Ahafo

A resettlement process was undertaken at Newmont Ghana’s Ahafo mine. Because of the demographic profile of the community, the company partnered with a range of local organizations in order to develop a tailored resettlement process.



Asian Development Bank, Handbook on Resettlement: A Guide to Good Practice, Manila, 1998.

Performance Requirement 5: Land Acquisition, Involuntary Resettlement, and Economic Displacement.

Involuntary Resettlement, Washington DC, 2012.

IFC, Handbook for Preparing a Resettlement Action Plan, Washington DC, March 2002.